# Apparent Porosity Open Porosity

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## Apparent Porosity Open Porosity

2020-06-24T21:06:37+00:00
• ## APPARENT POROSITY AND TRUE POROSITY OF REFRACTORY

The usual difference between the apparent porosity and the true porosity is of the order of 1 to 2 percent unless the proportion of the sealed pores is high. The true porosity figure is the higher than the apparent porosity figure as the true porosity includes the volume of the sealed or closed pores also.

• File Size: 10KB
• ## Apparent Porosity - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

One of the fundamental differences between cortical and trabecular bone is its apparent porosity. Apparent porosity is the ratio of the mass bone tissue in a

• ## Porosity - Wikipedia

OverviewPorosity in earth sciences and constructionVoid fraction in two-phase flowPorosity of fabric or aerodynamic porosityDie casting porosityMeasuring porositySee alsoFootnotes

Used in geology, hydrogeology, soil science, and building science, the porosity of a porous medium (such as rock or sediment) describes the fraction of void space in the material, where the void may contain, for example, air or water. It is defined by the ratio: $${\displaystyle \phi ={\frac {V_{\mathrm {V} }}{V_{\mathrm {T} }}}}$$where VV is the volume of void-space (such as fluids) and VT is the total or bulk volume of material, including the solid and void components. Both the mathematical symbols $${\ • New content will be added above the current area of focus upon selection Used in geology, hydrogeology, soil science, and building science, the porosity of a porous medium (such as rock or sediment) describes the fraction of void space in the material, where the void may contain, for example, air or water. It is defined by the ratio:$${\displaystyle \phi ={\frac {V_{\mathrm {V} }}{V_{\mathrm {T} }}}}$$where VV is the volume of void-space (such as fluids) and VT is the total or bulk volume of material, including the solid and void components. Both the mathematical symbols$${\displaystyle \phi }$$and$${\displaystyle n}$$are used to denote porosity. Porosity is a fraction between 0 and 1, typically ranging from less than 0.005 for solid granite to more than 0.5 for peat and clay. The porosity of a rock, or sedimentary layer, is an important consideration when attempting to evaluate the potential volume of water or hydrocarbons it may contain. Sedimentary porosity is a complicated function of many factors, including but not limited to: rate of burial, depth of burial, the nature of the connate fluids, the nature of overlying sediments (which may impede fluid expulsion). One commonly used relationship between porosity and depth is given by the Athy (1930) equation:$${\displaystyle \phi (z)=\phi _{0}e^{-kz}\,}$$where$${\displaystyle \phi _{0}}$$is the surface porosity,$${\displaystyle k}$$is the compaction coefficient (m ) and$${\displaystyle z}$$is depth (m). A value for porosity can alternatively be calculated from the bulk density$${\displaystyle \rho _{\text{bulk}}}$$, saturating fluid density$${\displaystyle \rho _{\text{fluid}}}$$and particle density$${\displaystyle \rho _{\text{particle}}}:

• ## Apparent Porosity Formula - Easycalculation

Apparent porosity defines the relationship between the volume of the mass absorbed to the volume of the water absorbed. Here is the Apparent porosity formula to calculate the apparent porosity. To compute, divide the weight of dry piece by the weight of the soaked piece and subtract the obtained value from the weight of the soaked piece.

• ## Calculate Apparent Porosity, Volume of Pores - Online ...

An apparent Porosity is defined as the quantity of void (or pores) present in a volume of sediment or porous solid. Generally, the value of porosity is measured as a fraction or percentage. Here is the simple online apparent porosity calculator to calculate the apparent porosity with ease.

• ## 2.Density and porosity

Apparent Porosity = Ratio of open pore volume to total volume % App. Porosity = open pore vol. x 100 Total vol. = S –D x 100 S –I Water absorption = Ratio of open pore vol. to weight of the test piece % Water absorption= open pore vol. x 100 wt. = S –D x 100 D 30/07/52 Density and porosity/S.T.Rattanachan 12

• File Size: 519KB
• ## Low Porosity Hair: Characteristics How To Treat

The best way to determine your hair porosity is the sink or float test. Fill a deep bowl or water Limestone with room temperature water and take a few fallen strands of hair and place them on the surface. Because high porosity hair is so open, it will quickly sink to the bottom.

• ## How to measure the apparent porosity and bulk density of ...

The difference between the apparent density and real density is the apparent porosity in the sample (porosity=1-AD/RD).

• ## THE IMPORTANCE AND TESTING OF DENSITY / POROSITY ...

The type of porosity present in a body (closed or open) has also an influence because a small amount of closed porosity will not translate into permeability as would open porosity.

• File Size: 1MB
• ## How can I calculate the porosity and density of the ...

You can measure the bulk and apparent densities and also the open porosity of the samples using the Archimedes’ technique with water as the immersing medium. The relative density is obtainable with...

• ## Low Porosity Hair: Characteristics How To Treat

Because high porosity hair is so open, it will quickly sink to the bottom. Low porosity hair is water-resistant and will remain floating on the surface, even after a couple of minutes. Normal porosity hair will hover in the middle, meaning your hair retains moisture well. How To Moisturize Low Porosity Hair

• ## Apparent Porosity Formula - Easycalculation

Here is the Apparent porosity formula to calculate the apparent porosity. To compute, divide the weight of dry piece by the weight of the soaked piece and subtract the obtained value from the weight of the soaked piece. Again subtract the weight of the piece soaked and immersed from the resultant value. Multiply with 100 to get the result in percentage. Formula: E = [(S - W) / (S - I)] x 100 ...

• ## What is Hair Porosity and Why Does it Matter? HelloGiggles

2020-08-31  Hair porosity refers to the hair's ability to absorb and retain moisture—so low porosity hair has a lower ability to hold moisture, while high porosity hair is the opposite.

• ## EN 1936:2006 - Natural stone test methods - Determination ...

This European standard specifies methods for determining the real density, apparent density, and open and total porosity of natural stone. Prüfverfahren für Naturstein - Bestimmung der Reindichte, der Rohdichte, der offenen Porosität und der Gesamtporosität

• ## EN 1936 : 2006 NATURAL STONE TEST METHODS ...

9.2 Apparent density 9.3 Open porosity 9.4 Real density 9.5 Total porosity 10 Test report Bibliography Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below) Defines methods for determining the real density, apparent density, and open and total porosity of natural stone. General Product Information ...

• ## Apparent Porosity of Refractory Castable - Dongfang Refractory

The factors affecting apparent porosity can be summarized into three aspects. (1)Non-burning of materials, uneven expansion of products and high porosity. (2)Unreasonable composition, insufficient molding pressure, excessive bulk volume and a high apparent porosity.

• ## Apparent Porosity Scientific.Net

The linear rate of change, apparent porosity, bulk density and crushing strength of these specimens were studied. The results showed: a crushing strength of 52.39 MPa, an apparent porosity value of 15.55% and a bulk density value of 2.91 g/cm 3 were obtained via a particle size distribution coefficient of 0.30 at 1550°C. Simultaneously, the ...

• ## Experimental Investigation of the Dependence of Accessible ...

Whereas porosity and methane sorption capacity show a strong simultaneous increase for the Alum and Kimmeridge shales for a particle size and <1 μm, respectively, this does not hold for the Bazhenov Shale where the largest increase in porosity is apparent upon reduction from plug to >10 mm particle size and the largest increase in methane sorption capacity is apparent upon particle size ...

• ## Standard Test Methods for Apparent Porosity, Water ...

6.3 Apparent Porosity, P—The apparent porosity ex-presses as a percentage the relationship of the volume of the open pores in the specimen to its exterior volume. Calculate P as follows: P,%[email protected]~W2D!/V# 3100 (4) 6.4 Water Absorption, A—The water absorption, A, ex-presses as a percentage the relationship of the weight of water absorbed to the weight of the dry specimen.

• ## Properties of Refractories – IspatGuru

2016-12-16  True porosity = (S- R)/S X 100 volume %, where S is the density and R is the bulk density. The density is the quotient of mass and volume excluding pore space and is determined on finely crushed material. Frequently, not the values of the true porosity but those of apparent porosity (open porosity) are used as the application property. The ...

• ## Apparent Porosity [jlk9o8xkw345] - idoc.pub

Refractory: Apparent porosity Bulk Density:Apparent porosity: This is the amount of the total closed and open pores in the refractory materials in percentage.The good refractory material should have a minimum porosity vale except in the case of the insulation bricks. Bulk Density: This is the ration of weight to the volume of the refractory materials in gram/cc.The good refractory material ...

• ## EN 1936 : 2006 NATURAL STONE TEST METHODS ...

9.2 Apparent density 9.3 Open porosity 9.4 Real density 9.5 Total porosity 10 Test report Bibliography Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below) Defines methods for determining the real density, apparent density, and open and total porosity of natural stone. General Product Information ...

• ## Apparent Porosity Scientific.Net

The linear rate of change, apparent porosity, bulk density and crushing strength of these specimens were studied. The results showed: a crushing strength of 52.39 MPa, an apparent porosity value of 15.55% and a bulk density value of 2.91 g/cm 3 were obtained via a particle size distribution coefficient of 0.30 at 1550°C. Simultaneously, the ...

• ## Apparent Porosity of Refractory Castable - Dongfang Refractory

The factors affecting apparent porosity can be summarized into three aspects. (1)Non-burning of materials, uneven expansion of products and high porosity. (2)Unreasonable composition, insufficient molding pressure, excessive bulk volume and a high apparent porosity.

• ## Experimental Investigation of the Dependence of Accessible ...

Whereas porosity and methane sorption capacity show a strong simultaneous increase for the Alum and Kimmeridge shales for a particle size and <1 μm, respectively, this does not hold for the Bazhenov Shale where the largest increase in porosity is apparent upon reduction from plug to >10 mm particle size and the largest increase in methane sorption capacity is apparent upon particle size ...

• ## Standard Test Methods for Apparent Porosity, Water ...

6.3 Apparent Porosity, P—The apparent porosity ex-presses as a percentage the relationship of the volume of the open pores in the specimen to its exterior volume. Calculate P as follows: P,%[email protected]~W2D!/V# 3100 (4) 6.4 Water Absorption, A—The water absorption, A, ex-presses as a percentage the relationship of the weight of water absorbed to the weight of the dry specimen.

• ## ISO 18754:2013(en), Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics ...

NOTE These methods are not appropriate for the determination of an apparent porosity greater than 10 %. For materials with higher porosity, the accuracy of the measurement may not be satisfactory. The method may also not give a satisfactory open porosity result if it is less than 0,5 % . 2 Normative references. The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this ...

• ## Crain's Petrophysical Handbook Porosity - EPT and ...

Porosity and Water Saturation From Dielectric Phase Shift Modern dielectric logs measure both resistivity and phase shift between transmitted and received EM signals. The phase shift (PHZ) varies with the volume of each mineral and fluid in the formation. Like sonic travel time and density, the measured log value is the sum of these volumetric contributions. These tools have relatively shallow ...

• ## POROSITY LOGGING - Kansas Geological Survey

the sonic log to a porosity log generates an apparent porosity trace keyed to one or other matrix mineral, in a similar fashion to the neutron and density logs. Primary and secondary porosity The neutron and density logs are responses to pores of all sizes. However, field observation over many years has shown that the sonic log is a measure of interparticle (intergranular and intercrystalline ...

• ## What is Interconnected Porosity? - Definition from ...

2013-11-15  The total porosity of a material is the sum of the open and closed porosity. Corrosionpedia explains Interconnected Porosity. Porosity can be classified based on either its geological origin or pore connectivity. In terms of pore connectivity, porosity can be either total or effective. Total porosity includes all existing pores regardless of whether they are connected or not.

• ## Standard Test Methods for Apparent Porosity, Water ...

6.3 Apparent Porosity, P—The apparent porosity ex-presses as a percentage the relationship of the volume of the open pores in the specimen to its exterior volume. Calculate P as follows: P,%[email protected]~W2D!/V# 3100 (4) 6.4 Water Absorption, A—The water absorption, A, ex-presses as a percentage the relationship of the weight of water absorbed to the weight of the dry specimen.

• ## Mnemonics, Properties, Apparent_Porosity - Schlumberger

Apparent_Porosity: Name: Apparent Porosity: Parents Property > Ratio > Volume_Fraction > Porosity: Description: Initial estimate of porosity, normally from logs, not corrected for the (often large) effects of clays, gas, etc. Such estimates should only be used for qualitative interpretation of

• ## ASTM C830 - 00(2016) Standard Test Methods for Apparent ...

3.1 Apparent porosity, water absorption, apparent specific gravity, and bulk density are primary properties of refractory shapes. These properties are widely used in the evaluation and comparison of product quality and as part of the criteria for selection and use of refractory products in a variety of industrial applications.

• ## Experimental Investigation of the Dependence of Accessible ...

Whereas porosity and methane sorption capacity show a strong simultaneous increase for the Alum and Kimmeridge shales for a particle size and <1 μm, respectively, this does not hold for the Bazhenov Shale where the largest increase in porosity is apparent upon reduction from plug to >10 mm particle size and the largest increase in methane sorption capacity is apparent upon particle size ...

• ## Applied Paper Technology Porosity

The instruments measure porosity by forcing air through the sheet and measuring the rate of flow. More open sheets allow air to pass through the sheet more rapidly. The porosity test is sometime used on coated paper or coated paperboard. These products are not generally porous, so the apparent porosity measurement is in reality a measurement of air leakage from the clamp. Gurley Porosity Test ...

• ## ISO - ISO 12985-2:2018 - Carbonaceous materials used in ...

This document specifies a hydrostatic method for the determination of the apparent density and the open (to water) porosity of carbonaceous products used in the production of aluminium. This hydrostatic method was developed principally to determine the open porosity but can also be used to measure the apparent density. This document is ...

• ## PAMPA--a drug absorption in vitro model 8. Apparent filter ...

The novel concept of the apparent porosity is introduced, described, and its utility demonstrated with the drugs diclofenac, desipramine, caffeine, and piroxicam. The PAMPA data of Wohnsland and Faller [J. Med. Chem. 44 (2001) 923] is taken as an example, where the reported extraordinarily efficient stirring is thought to be better explained in terms of normal stirring when apparent porosity ...

• ## ISO 18754:2013(en), Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics ...

NOTE These methods are not appropriate for the determination of an apparent porosity greater than 10 %. For materials with higher porosity, the accuracy of the measurement may not be satisfactory. The method may also not give a satisfactory open porosity result if it is less than 0,5 % . 2 Normative references. The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this ...

• ## PAPER OPEN ACCESS Effect of temperature on porosity of ...

The apparent density and porosity for iron sinter show a significant increase and gradual decrement as the temperature increase, respectively. The porosity of iron sinter shows a gradual decrement from 950 ºC to 1050 ºC but up to 1150 ºC it shows a significant decrement about 44%. Inferring to the micrograph, the agglomeration and assimilation of sinter at high temperature is better ...

• ## Fluid Identification Using Neutron Porosity and Bulk ...

Thermal Neutron Porosity Equivalence Curves The porosity equivalence curve for Limestone is a straight line. It has a one-to-one relationship, between the apparent measured limestone porosity and the true porosity for the indicated matrix. The equivalence curves for Sandstone and Dolomite have non-linear relationships. They are curved lines.